Substitution Charts

I’m a wiz at making ingredient substitutions but some people aren’t quite as fearless in the kitchen as I am. I’ve listed some of the most common ones I use below. Please don’t hesitate to contact me if you have a question about substituting ingredients. If I haven’t done it, I’m willing to try it. 🙂

Egg Substitutes in Baking
(note: these also work well as gluten replacements)

1 egg = 1 Tbs chia seeds + 3 Tbs liquid (water, broth, juice)
1 egg = 1 tsp ground chia seed + 3 Tbs liquid
1 egg = 1 Tbs flax seeds + 3 Tbs liquid
1 egg = 1 tsp ground flax seed + 3 Tbs liquid

Cane Sugar Replacements in Baking

1 cup brown sugar = 1 cup date sugar – 1 cup flour
1 cup brown sugar = 1 cup coconut sugar
1 cup brown sugar = 3/4 cup dark agave nectar – 1/4 cup liquid
1 cup granulated sugar = 3/4 cup light agave nectar – 1/4 cup liquid
1 cup granulated sugar = 2/3 cup honey – 1/4 cup liquid
1 cup granulated sugar = 2/3 cup pure maple syrup – 1/4 cup liquid
1 cup granulated sugar = 1 1/3 cup rice syrup – 1/4 cup liquid
1 cup granulated sugar = 1 cup granulated erythritol
1 cup granulated sugar = 1 teaspoon stevia extract (powder or liquid)

Gluten Replacements in Baking
(note: I now use chia or flax seed as a gluten replacement)

Breads and Dough
1/2 tsp xanthan gum per each cup of gluten free flour
1 tsp ground chia seeds per each cup of gluten free flour
1 tsp psyllium husk powder per each cup of gluten free flour
1 tsp guar gum per each cup of gluten free flour
1 tsp agar agar powder per each cup of gluten free flour

Cakes, Cookies & Muffins
1/4 tsp xanthan gum per each cup of gluten free flour
1/2 tsp ground chia seeds per each cup of gluten free flour
1/2 tsp psyllium husk powder per each cup of gluten free flour
1/2 tsp guar gum per each cup of gluten free flour
1/2 tsp agar agar powder per each cup of gluten free flour

Thickening Agents

1 tsp agar agar powder per each cup of boiling liquid (let bloom for 10 minutes first)
1 Tbs agar agar flakes per each cup of boiling liquid (let bloom for 10 minutes first)
2 1/2 tsp arrowroot + 1 Tbs cold liquid per each cup of liquid (note: don’t use arrowroot with dairy products)
1 Tbs corn starch + 1 Tbs cold liquid per each cup of simmering liquid (note: don’t use cornstarch with acidic sauces)
1 Tbs tapioca starch + 1 Tbs cold liquid per each cup of liquid

214 Responses to Substitution Charts

  1. Tiffany says:

    I have a bread recipe that calls for psyllium husks which I havent been able to find locally. It calls for 1/3 cup whole husks. Can I substitute xanthan gum? How much would I use?

  2. Laura says:

    Thank you for this, it is super helpful! I have tried using a flax egg in bread and muffins several times. They always come out very gummy, which is not what I need. I am baking for two friends that can’t have eggs and I am not finding any kind of success. Can you give me any suggestions or tips? Thanks!

    • I haven’t tried flax seed as an egg substitute but I’ve had a lot of success with chia seeds. Soaking them in water/liquid for 5-10 minutes is key. It plumps up the seeds so they release their gel quality. I usually use them whole but they can be ground as well. Decreasing any other liquid in the recipe by a few tablespoons may help with the texture. Good luck!

    • Janet says:

      I realize this is an old post, but it’s worth noting that aquafaba (the bean liquid drained from a can of garbanzo, or other, beans, makes a decent egg substitute in many recipes. Check out the aquafaba facebook page for ideas and recipes https://www.facebook.com/groups/VeganMeringue/

  3. I generally use xanthan gum in my gluten free baking. My question is – if I use psyllium husk powder, do I still need xanthan gum or do they work together?

  4. Catgross says:

    Hi:
    I have a pudding recipe that calls for 2 tablespoons Corn starch. I cannot have any starch in my diet. So, what can I use to replace starch with in a recipe? Would Whey protein or egg protein work? Or how about a sunflower lecithin? You did mention Agar, but I cannot use products made from sea weed, BUT i can use gelatin. So, how would I replace agar for gelatin? Anyway, I really trying to figure out what would replace starch all starches are out for me.

    • In cold/chilled things, gelatin would work well. I’d start with one packet (2 1/2 teaspoons or 0.25 ounces of gelatin powder). I don’t use whey or egg protein so am not sure how well they’d work. Whole eggs are used in custard so should work in pudding, too, just be careful not to scramble them in the cooking process. Chia seeds would also work. I make chia pudding with 1/4 cup chia seeds, 1 cup almond milk and a packet of stevia. Whisk it well & let set for at least an hour. Pectin is also an option if the recipe has fruit in it. Since I don’t use sugar I use instant pectin in jams and syrups. For thickening savory things like soup or gravy, cooked and pureed vegetables work great and add a lot of flavor.

    • Lisa says:

      I aan not have cornstarch also I use arrowroot instead and it works great!

    • Evelyn jones says:

      how much zanthan gum as a substitute for 3/4cup of cornstarch

      • What type of recipe are you making the substitution in? A little bit of xanthan gum goes a long way so a straight substitution can’t be made. Usually 1/2 to 1 teaspoon of xanthan gum is used per cup of flour in baked goods.

  5. Janetta Smith says:

    I have a recipe that calls for 7 TBS psyllium husk, I don’t have that & my stomach can’t handle flax seed. What I do have is xanthan gum & glucommannan powder…can I use either of those?

    • Xanthan gum should work. The ratio when substituting xanthan gum for psyllium husk is 1:1 in standard gluten free recipes. 7 tablespoons of xanthan gum may make the recipe too gummy so you’ll have to experiment. I’d start with half that amount. Good luck and happy cooking!

  6. Bev says:

    I have agar agar, but recipe calls for tsp of xanthan gum. Do you know how much agar agar I should use as substitute? I read that one tsp of agar agar thickens a cup of liquid, but haven’t found anything about how much to use per cup of gluten free flour or equivalencies of agar agar to xanthan gum. Would be so great if you can help! Thanks!

    • For gluten free baking use a 2:1 ratio when substituting agar agar powder for xanthan gum. It’s usually recommended you use 1/4 teaspoon xanthan gum per cup of gluten free flour so if substituting agar agar use 1/2 teaspoon per cup of gluten free flour.

  7. Bev says:

    Magical timing on your quick reply, since I need to make an upside down banana and maple syrup cake for an event today. Thank you for your cooking wisdom and your speedy response!

  8. I have a recipe for an avocado lime pie that calls for 1tbsp of psyllium husk, unfortunately I cannot find any and was wondering what would be a good substitute.

    • Chia seeds or flax seeds will work quite well. You can use them whole or measure out a tablespoon and then grind them in a spice grinder. I’d grind them for a smoother texture.

      • joanne says:

        Would chia seeds work in a cake recipe that calls for Fiberhusk (it’s a Swedish recipe and I’m assuming it’s psyllium husk)? It also asks for 1 Tablespoon. Thanks!

      • Yes, chia seeds would work as a replacement. Use the same amount. Psyllium husk is often used in Europe as a gluten replacement. I didn’t like the possible side-effects of it so started using chia seeds, which has similar properties. Now chia seeds are popular so they’re easier to find.

  9. Mrs Davis says:

    I want to make cauliflower crisps can I use agar agar in place of flour and how much.

  10. Hima says:

    Substitute chart for xanthum gum with chai seed gel

  11. Whitney Bray says:

    Hello! I was looking to make a low carb gluten free version of Baumkuchen cake- the recipe calls for 1/2 cup cake flour. Could I take out the flour entirely and just use 1/2 tsp psyllium husk powder?

    If it matters what else is in the batter- this is the whole original recipe:
    4 whole eggs
    1 tbsp vanilla extract
    1/4 cup milk
    3/4 cup sugar (I’ll be using Swerve erythritol sweetener instead)
    3/4 cup brown butter
    1/2 cup cake flour

    Thank you so very much for your time!!

  12. Quianna says:

    Thanks for your info! I’m trying to bake a gluten, egg and dairy free cake for my sons birthday tomorrow and the recipe calls for 2 teas of xanthan gum but I would like to use psyllium husk instead. Per your instructions I should use 4 teas of the physillium but I have read elsewhere that you won’t need very much at all. Can you please advise?

    • If you are using chia seeds or flaxseed meal as an egg replacement, you don’t need psyllium husk powder at all. If not, then I’d half the amount to 2 teaspoons since 4 would be a lot (2 teaspoons of xanthan gum is also a lot and I’m surprised the original recipe uses so much). Good luck!

  13. Linda says:

    I have a recipe that calls for 1 Tablespoon of whole psyllium husk, can i substitute it with the psyllium husk powder

  14. Lisa says:

    Thank you so must for this post! I am new to gluten free baking I am diagnosed with Hashimotos and my doctor told me NO gluten. I can not use xanathan gum so I purchased Organic India Whole Husk Psyllium. I am baking a sorghum and tapioca pie crust and the recipe calls for 2 tsp of xanathan gum. I do not know how much psyllium to use, can I just substitute 1:1 the gum for the psyllium husks?

    • I’ve never used whole psyllium husks only powdered. Powdered you can do a 1:1 exchange. Whole you might want to do a 1:2 ratio. If you’re not powdering them then I recommend soaking them in any liquid used in the recipe for 5-10 minutes like you would whole chia seeds or flax seeds

  15. Lisa says:

    Thank you for your help! When I bake my yeast free bread I make a slurry of flax seed and hot water, 1 T of hot water to 2 T flax seeds.

  16. Beth says:

    I’m making a bread recipe that calls for 1 cup walnut flour, 1 cup oat flour, 2/3 cup buckwheat flour, and 2 tbsp arrowroot. I don’t have arrowroot and am wondering whether it would be better to substitute cornstarch or psyllium husk. (I have both at home.) If psyllium would work, then how much would I use? If cornstarch is better then is it a 1:1 substitution? Thanks so much for your help!

  17. ashta says:

    Hi, this info is great..when i try to bake gluten free especially breads with either sorghum or finger millet or pearl.millet floura or a mix of all, i use flax as as egg replacer, with proportions of.baking soda and powder, however without banana the breads turn out dry and crumbly. And with banana rhe flavor of the fruit is very overpowering. Can u please advise on what can be used to provide structure.and moisture to the bakes except banana? I.also always bake yeast egg and gum.free.

    thanks much!
    Ashta

    • Crumbly is often a problem for me, too. I find adding a tablespoon or two of coconut flour improves the texture and adding oil, applesauce, nutbutters, or coconut milk keeps it from being too dry. My bread dough often resembles a thick batter more than an actual dough. A friend says they’re dense like cake but they’re edible & pretty good when toasted. Good luck!

  18. Luanne says:

    In your crunchy granola bites, one of the ingredients is Almond flour. However, in the recipe on how to make, you make no mention of adding the flour. I’m assuming I add it the same time I add the other ingredients.

    Thanks
    Luanne

  19. Linda says:

    Hi,
    I would like to substitute pectin for agar agar in a recipe….what would the proportions be?

    thanks,
    Linda

    • Pectin can a bit tricky; it needs the right amount of acid and sugar to set up. If the recipe has the right proportions of those two substances, then there is a 2:1 substitution ratio of pectin to agar agar powder (not flakes or sheets). Good luck!

  20. el says:

    i am baking gluten and egg free. Should i use your measurement for gluten, in addition to the measurement for the egg? Or would that be too much. I would basically be putting in 2 T of the chia for the eggs, and 4 tsp of psyillium for the gluten. Any thoughts?

  21. christine says:

    hello !
    Im trying to make this bread and I cant find a psyllium husk. Can I just skip that and continue or should I use something else.Thank you so much.
    Christine

    here is the recp.

    2 and a 1/2 cups of cold water
    1 and a 1/2 cups of pumpkin seeds
    1 cup of quinoa flakes
    1 cup of almonds
    1/2 a cup of sunflower seeds
    1/2 a cup of flaxseeds
    3 heaped tablespoons of psyllium husk powder**
    2 tablespoons of chia seeds
    2 tablespoons of dried mixed herbs (basil, rosemary, thyme, oregano etc are all great)
    salt to taste

  22. Hi..I have a recipe for a smoothie that calls for 1 TBSP of phyllium husk. I don’t have any but do have chia seeds. Can I substitute these instead and how much do I need?

  23. morgan says:

    I have a gluten intolerance and my dad found an almond bread recipe but it has arrow root and flax seed (which you show can be used as an egg substitute) in them. Can we substitute for more eggs and add a little corn meal even though the recipe all ready calls for eggs?

    • Those substitutions should work. Try a more finely ground corn flour or masa harina rather than corn meal since almond meal, even finely ground, creates pretty crumbly bread and corn meal would make that problem worse. Corn starch would be even better and a truer substitute for arrowroot. There are gluten free brands on the market. Remember to decrease liquid in the recipe by 3 tablespoons for every additional egg you add. Good luck & happy baking!

  24. Mary Ellen says:

    I Found a recipe to make your own nondairy creamer with almond milk, but it calls for 3 tsp of arrowroot powder (which I do not have). I have xanthum gum and glucomannan powder – could either of these be used instead and if so, how much?

    • Xanthan gum should work; it’s used to thicken salad dressings. I’d start with a 1/4 tsp and increase by a 1/4 tsp if necessary. It may need to be heated to thicken properly. It’s been years since I used it & even then I didn’t use it regularly.

  25. Kim Wellington says:

    Will ground Psyllium seeds work the same way as Psyllium husk powder?

    • I’m not sure if the seeds alone will form gel like the husks do. You can test it by adding a tsp of ground seeds to a few Tbs of water and letting it sit for 5-10 minutes. If a gel form then they can be used in place of the husks.

  26. Leanne says:

    When substituting ground chia seeds for xanthan gum in a bread recipe do you add the ground chia seeds to the mix dry or do you mix it with boiling water first to get the gel? I am already using ground chia seeds for egg replacement. I cannot have xanthan gum or guar gum.

    • I’ve done it both ways but usually mix it with the dry ingredients. The bread dough, muffin, or cake batter sit long enough during the baking process that the chia or flax seed meal plumbs up without that extra step. When making gluten free tortillas or cookies, though, I find it works better if I gel it first.

  27. Pat says:

    thank you very much! any chart about conversion to the metric system? sometimes it can be very tricky to ‘guess’ what 1 ml of psyllium husk powder could be equal to! at any rate, your chart saved me a lot of work ☺️

  28. joanne says:

    Would I need to reduce the liquid or change anything else in the cake recipe if I use the 1 Tbsp of chia seeds instead of the psyllium husk? I assume that I should measure out 1 Tbsp first, then use my coffee grinder to make it into a powder? Thanks!

    • joanne says:

      Oops this was in response to your reply on 1/6.. I thought this would go under your reply.

    • No other changes necessary. I usually grind the seeds first then measure out what I need, though now I buy preground chia seed meal. The meal wasn’t available when I first started baking with chia seeds but now it’s readily available.

  29. Dominique says:

    Hi! 🙂 I’m making vegan lemon meringue pie and for the lemon filling, it asks for 1/4 tsp agar but I only have xanthum gum. Can I replace the 1/4 tsp agar with 1/4 tsp xanthum gum? I suppose its for thickening the lemon filling. Thanks a mil!

    • The ratio of xanthan gum to agar agar powder is 1:2 so you’d only need an 1/8 tsp of xanthan gum for your recipe. Happy baking!

      • Catharine Dubois says:

        Have a recipe for cheese which calls for 3tsp agar powder and I don’t have any. Can I use arrowroot powder?

      • Agar is more of a gelatin substitute than a starch. Chia seed meal or flaxseed meal would probably be better substitutes if you’re trying to keep it vegan. Try a 1:1 ratio to start, though you may have to add more later to get the consistency you want.

  30. Amy says:

    What can I substitute psyllium husk for. I have a recipe that calls for 3 tbls.

  31. Hi, can I use chia seeds as a substitute for tapioca starch? If so do you know the ratio?

    • In what type of recipe do you want to make substitution? Tapiocia starch and chia seeds have very different chemical properties. You could make the substitution if the tapioca starch is used as a thickener, say in pudding or dressings, but the texture will change a lot, making it more like a gel. I wouldn’t make the substitution in baked goods since starches and fatty acids like chia seeds bring very different qualities to baked goods. Arrowroot, potato starch, or corn starch are better substitutes for tapiocia starch.

  32. bymmila says:

    Hi! If a gluten free cookie recipe requires one tsp of xantham gum how much arrowroot powder should I put in instead of it? I don’t want to use xantham gum and I already have arrowroot powder at home. Thanks so much for your advice!

    • Arrowroot can’t be substituted for xanthan gum. Arrowroot is a starch which doesn’t give gluten free recipes the elasticity that gums or mucilage containing seeds provide. Flaxseed meal, chia seed meal, psyllium husk powder, guar gum, or agar agar powder can be substituted for xanthan gum. If those aren’t available, you can simply leave it out if the recipe altogether.

  33. Chay Adix says:

    Hi, I’ve been reading your site with great interest. I have recently discovered Konjac root or glucomannan powder to be very helpful adding thick cream-like textures to smoothies and thickening in hot stews. It has a 1:1 ratio of carbs to fiber. Since it seizes immediately in any liquid, I use an immersion blender while adding it to cold or hot liquids. I use about 1 to 1.5 tsps to a 12 oz almond milk shake. Also, I would use 1 to 1.5 tbs to a quart of hot stew. If you know the product would you relate how it may be used in baking? Many thanks!

    • Konjac root has been banned in several countries because it can cause serious health problems, specifically blockages in the esophagus and intestines due to its water absorbing properties. Please use it with caution.

      In regards to baking, use it with the same ratios as ground chia seeds, flaxseed meal, or psyllum husk powder. I personally seldom use psyllum husk powder because it can cause the same type of intestinal blockages as Konjac root.

  34. Suzanne says:

    I’m very new to all this as I just found out that I am intolerant to yeast, dairy products, eggs, gluten and corn. I have tried to bake different bread recipes and had to through it all in the garbage because of the taste of consistency. I found a gluten, yeast and dairy free recipe and I would like your opinion about a substitute for eggs. I tried different things but I might not be using the right quantity because it doesn’t work. Here is the recipe and let me know what you suggest.

    3 cups of buckwheat of millet flour
    1 1/2 cups distilled water
    2 Tbs non aluminum baking powder
    1/2 tps sea salt
    3 eggs

    • Flaxseed meal or chia seed meal are the best egg substitutes. Xanthan gum and psyllum husk powder are good binders to replace gluten but shouldn’t be used in the quantities needed to be egg substitutes. My ratios are 3 Tbs chia seed or flaxseed meal + 1/4 cup liquid = 1 egg. Let the mixture sit for 5-10 minutes to develop its gel-like qualities before adding to the rest of the ingredients. I’d also replace a 1/4 cup of the buckwheat or millet flour with a starch like tapioca flour or potato starch. I’ve found it helps with consistency. I also don’t recommend using distilled water for drinking, cooking, or baking. Distilled water doesn’t contain the minerals our bodies need to function. It’s good for things that should be sterile like medical equipment and laboratory use but not good for consumption. Filtered water is better.

      • Suzanne says:

        Thank you so much for this information. It seems a bit overwhelming at the beginning especially with all the intolerances. I will definitely try this. If you have suggestions about other bread recipes or muffins recipes that wouldn’t include my intolerances I mentionned, it would greatly be appreciated.
        thank you so much!

    • There are several yeast free bread recipes on this site since I couldn’t have yeast for several years. I particularly liked the oat flour ones. Replacing the eggs with chia or flax should be pretty easy & exchanging vinegar (which some yeast sensitive people also react to) for lime or lemon juice works well. You can search by keywords or browse through the bread category. Good luck & happy baking!

  35. Suzanne says:

    I have Psyllium Seed Husk and Xanthan Gum but I’m not sure of the quantity to use or if it’s better than chia (seed/ground) or flax (seed/ground) to replace eggs in bread.

  36. Linasoya says:

    Hi, What can I replace Arrowroot powder with?
    In SA it is quite expensive for a small amount and cannot afford to buy it.

    • Any other type of starch can be used as an arrowroot replacement: corn starch, tapioca flour/starch, even potato starch. I usually use tapioca flour now that several of my local stores carry it.

      • Linasoya says:

        Thank you so much for your reply :). I can manage to get some Tapioca Flour. How do I work out the measurement for “Arrowroot to Tapioca Flour” when working from a recipe?

    • I use a 1:1 ratio when substituting one starch for another. They all act a little differently from one another but not so much that you can’t make a straight substitution.

  37. Stasi says:

    I want to make this pita bread recipe but can I substitute the physllium husk powder for cornstarch? I don’t have chia or flax. Thanks.

    • Corn starch won’t give the dough the elastic feel of gluten like psyllium, chia, or flax. Xanthan gum, agar agar, guar gum, or powdered gelatin could work though I’ve only tried xanthan gum or add an extra egg & remove 1/4 cup of liquid from the recipe. Good luck!

      • Stasi says:

        Thank you! This is the recipe:
        Wet Ingredients:
        2½ tsp. dry active yeast
        2 c. warm water (approx. 100 degrees)
        2 tsp. maple syrup or agave
        2 Tbsp. vegetable oil (or whatever oil you choose)
        2 Tbsp. psyllium husk powder (I used Secrets of the Pysllium from Trader Joe’s)
        Dry Ingredients:
        1 c. white rice flour
        1 c. superfine brown rice flour
        ½ c. potato starch
        ½ c. arrowroot powder
        3 tsp. xanthan gum
        1 tsp. salt
        Should I add more Xanthum gum?

    • Seems like they’re using psyllium husk powder as an egg replacer in the recipe rather than a gluten replacement since they’re also using xanthan gum. You can leave it out completely and decrease liquid by 1/4 cup or add an egg and again decrease liquid by a 1/4 cup or simply add an extra 2 Tbs of one of the flours or starches.

  38. Michelle says:

    When substituting the ground chia seeds for gluten, are you soaking them first if using ground?

  39. Hello, I’m making vegan popsicles and the recipe calls for 1/2 tbsp of cornstarch, the purpose of which is to help even out the consistency and make the pops a bit gelatinous and smooth. Can I use agar powder to replace the cornstarch? If so, is it an even trade of 1/2 tbsp for 1/2 tbsp? Thanks so much for all of your advice!

  40. Desire says:

    Hi, my recipe for carb free/low carb Turkish Delight calls for 100g of arrow root. What do I use in place of arrow root please, and ratio. Thank you find this all very helpful.

    • Tapioca starch or corn starch are good substitutes for arrowroot. My scale needs a new battery so I’m not sure what the ratio for grams would be but when measuring I use a simple 1:1 ratio. That should work with this recipe as well. Any weight differences are likely negligible.

  41. Tamika says:

    Hi, I am trying to convert a recipe for some biscuits which has no “liquid” per se, only butter, eggs, sugar (which I’m trying to replace), & flour. My question is if I’m wanting to replace raw sugar with maple syrup you say above to leave out liquid… in this case what should I do? Thanks, I’m new to sugar/gluten/dairy free cooking

  42. Carol Leach says:

    Hi, I am making a Gluten Free chocolate cake which requires 3/4 teaspoon guar gum or 3/4 teaspoon xanthan gum. I’m thinking of using a substitute with fresh ground flaxseeds so how much do I need to use and does it have to be soaked first? Any help would be appreciated.

  43. Emanuela Cioffi says:

    Can I use glucose syrup in place of xantham gum in a pie base recipe

    • I don’t recommend trying it. Xanthan gum acts like gluten, giving the dough some elasticity. I’ve never used it but I can’t imagine glucose syrup or any other sugar imparting that quality. Flaxseed meal, chia seed meal, or psyllium husk powder can be substituted for xanthan gum at a 1:1 ratio.

      • Emanuela Cioffi says:

        Thanks…I’m concerned that Xantham Gum may not be suitable for a severe Coeliac

    • Xanthan gum is made from corn sugar by bacteria and is gluten free but it does cause GI upset in some people. I stopped using it because I prefer the whole food options of flaxseed or chia seed meal which have better nutrient profiles and are less expensive.

  44. Charlie says:

    For 2 Tsp. of xathum gum how many sheets of gelation would I use?

    • I haven’t tried replacing xanthan gum with gelatin, though I’ve considered using it in dairy free ice creams. Most sites recommend a 2:1 ratio of gelatin to xanthan gum. 3 sheets of leaf gelatin equals 1 tsp xanthan gum. For your recipe, you’d need 12 sheets of gelatin.

  45. Lyndah says:

    Thank-you SO much! I just purchased ATK’s Gluten Free Cookbook and everything in there uses the psyllium husk powder instead of xanthan gum. I was afraid I would have to scrap the book! This information gives me a lot of options for gluten free bread in my bread machine. You’re the best!

  46. Garyn says:

    I want to make a blueberry streusel muffin. It calls for 1/4tsp xanthan gum I don’t have that what would be a good substitute for it. I wad thinking glucomannan. I’m trying that trim healthy momma way of eating. All help would be much appreciated.

  47. Ines says:

    I want to use arrowroot in place of agar powder in a gummy worm recipe could you please tell me if this would work and how much to put.

  48. Jennifer says:

    Can I use arrowroot to replace agar powder in a vegen whipped topping recipe?

    • Is the topping cooked or raw? If cooked then arrowroot can be used. 1 tsp arrowroot to 2 tsp cold liquid to create a slurry will give a gravy-like consistency to 2 cups hot liquid.

      If it’s an uncooked topping then xanthan gum, guar gum, or instant pectin would be better choices.

  49. Cari says:

    Hi, I have a recipe for naan flatbread that is 1/2 c almond flour, 1/2 c tapioca, 1 c coconut milk. Do you know how I could replace the tapioca w/o a starch that will still provide the desired texture? Psyllium, flax, something new I’ve never heard of?! Thanks, love your site!!

    • The texture will be different, but I use either flaxseed meal or chia seed meal and almond flour in one of my flatbread recipes. Lately I’ve been experimenting with chickpea/garbanzo bean flour, too. It has more carbs than flax or chia, but less than tapioca or arrowroot, and it has a nice bread-like texture.

  50. Angela says:

    Hello, does xanthan gum work well when baking with almond and coconut flours for items like scones cakes and muffins?
    thx!

  51. McDonna says:

    Can you please offer a standard ratio for substituting psyllium powder for psyllium husk? I bought the powder only to find that many of the recipes I want to make call for the husk. Not sure that the ratio should be 1:1 since the powder would conceivably have a more potent effect than the husk.

    Thanks for your help! Can’t find anything that talks about a standardized ratio of the two!

  52. roberta says:

    i can’t use jello ( animal ing.) need a sub. for lemon jello to use in a pineapple up side down cheese cake. please help before nov1, 2015

    • Pectin like what’s used in making jelly and jam is a great gelatin substitute and is easy to find in stores. It comes in three different formulas: regular, low sugar, and instant. Directions are on the package.

  53. Kathy Silber says:

    Can xanthan gum be substituted for konjac flour? If so, is it an even substitution?

  54. ev-ita says:

    Hello,
    What a very convenient website you have !
    I was wondering if you could give me some advice on the following:
    I’m trying to make a limoncello/ricotta cheesecake, but wonder if I could substitute the 1 1/2 tablespoons of agar-agar powder (not to be found in Brussels) with psyllium husk powder – and what quantity ? I also have flax and chia seeds.
    It seems that the agar-agar powder is used as some kind of gelatin, to stiffen up the cheese mixture.
    Hope to hear from you !
    Best,

    Evelyne

  55. Brenda Tapia says:

    Thank you! This is so helpful. Do you know which thickener is the best for kids? Let say 8 months?

    • It depends on what you are thickening. I’m a big fan of real foods, especially for children, so fruit or vegetable purees (bananas, apple sauce, cooked carrots, mashed potatoes, etc), full fat unsweetened Greek yogurt, pureed cottage cheese, mashed hard boiled eggs, unsweetened nut butters, and lentil puree are my first choices. Things like wheat, rice, or oat baby cereal would be second because they’re mostly carbs with little nutritional value.

  56. Jen Worden says:

    I am making a broccoli chedsar soup that is on the Atkins plan. Can i use gelatin for a thickening agent. (the receipe calls for cornstarch) and if so what is the ratio to use for thickening and should i whisk it. In cold water first?
    Thanks for any help you. Can give me

    • Gelatin only works in chilled dishes. You can try flaxseed meal, chia seed meal, or coconut flour as low carb thickeners. Start with 1 tsp per cup of liquid until you reach the desired consistency. I also use puréed vegetables as thickeners for soups. Once the soup is nearly done, remove 2-3 cups of veggies & broth, purée it & return to the stock pot, simmer until the soup is done.

  57. Carla Green says:

    Thank you witch!! 🙂

  58. Dan Yul says:

    Can I substitute gelatin or psyllium husk powder for cornstarch when thickening sauces like teriyaki?

    • Psyllium husk powder, yes. Gelatin, no unless you plan to serve it chilled. Other options include xanthan gum, coconut flour, flaxseed or chia seed meal. When using psyllium husk powder, start with a very small amount, 1/4 tsp, stir sauce for five minutes to give it time to work. Add more psyllium husk powder as needed, until it reaches the right consistency.

  59. Tresia Lindsay says:

    So if my recipe calls for 2/3 cups ground flaxseed and I want to use eggs how many eggs is that? Also it calls for 2/3 cups of maple syrup and I want to use molasses?

    • One egg equals about 1 tablespoon flaxseed meal + 1/4 cup water. To substitute eggs for flaxseed meal, you’ll have to subtract liquid from the recipe as well. In this case, I’d use three eggs & remove 3/4 cups of liquid from the recipe.

      Molasses has a much stronger flavor than maple syrup so only a tablespoon or two is needed. You may have to add 1/4 to 1/2 cup of another sweetener to take the place of the maple syrup.

  60. Wendy says:

    Firstly, thanks for taking the time to diligently and patiently answering us! I’m new to trying to substitute things in my search for a lower gluten and lower carb life. This site is so helpful!

    I’m trying to find a lower carb answer to the arrowroot in a baking mix and I think based on the answers I’ve read that flax might be ideal. If that is the case, what is your thoughts on a ratio? Thanks in advance! Here is the mix:

    Almond-Coconut Flour Blend

    INGREDIENTS:

    2 (16 oz) packages Trader Joe’s Almond Meal
    1 (16 oz) package Bob’s Red Mill Coconut Flour or Coconut Secret Raw Coconut Flour*
    1 (20 oz) package Bob’s Red Mill Arrowroot Starch

    Or

    2 cups (8 oz) almond meal
    1 cup (4 oz) coconut flour
    1 cup (4.5 oz) arrowroot starch

    • Yes, golden flaxseed meal or chia seed meal can be used instead of arrowroot or tapioca starch. In the recipe above I would add 1/2 cup almond meal & use 1/2 cup flaxseed meal. Coconut flour & flaxseed meal both suck up liquids so using less reduces that problem and gives you a little better texture (less dense). You’ll probably have to experiment to find the ratios that work best for your purposes. Ratios of flours/meals for breads are different from the ratios you’d use for cakes. There are a couple of older recipes on here for gluten free flour mixes but now I don’t bother. There are too many variables based on the type of foods I want to bake.

    • Wendy, do you have a low carb bred recipe you coud share with me that uses this mix? I’m a low carb newbie!

  61. D Joy says:

    I want to make vegan marshmallows to make rice crispie treats for my boyfriends son who recently went vegan. The marshmallow recipe calls for agar agar but I have tapioca starch and wondered if that would be a good replacement?

  62. I am on a low carb diet and would like to make this bread, but can’t figure out how to replace the brown rice flour. Coconut flour maybe? But then what is the quantity? It doesn’t have to be vegan, just low carb. Appreciate any ideas you may have! http://deliciouslyella.com/almond-quinoa-pumpkin-seed-bread/

    • I’d use more almond flour in place of the rice flour or half almond flour and half flaxseed meal. Coconut flour absorbs moisture like a sponge so can’t be substituted for equal ratios of other flours.

  63. sharon says:

    This is very helpful – thank you. Question regarding the use of unflavored gelatin in panna cotta. I’m trying to add a bit of fiber to balance the fat and sugar. Can I use psyllium or some other form of gelling agent that offers protein and fiber with the same results as gelatin?

  64. Kathy says:

    Hi, thank you so much for this conversion chart! I was wondering if you knew the ratio to convert arrowroot to konjac powder?

    • Kathy, I personally don’t use konjac powder because I don’t like the possible gastrointestinal side-effects; however, the ratio of corn starch or arrowroot to konjac powder is 10:1. So 1 tsp of konjac powder equals 10 tsps arrowroot powder.

  65. Christina says:

    Your site is so helpful! If I’m reading this correctly– “1/4 tsp xanthan gum per each cup of gluten free flour” so if my recipe calls for 4 cups of regular flour and I substitute with 4 cups of rice flour then I should add 1 tsp xanthum gum?

    • Christina, that’s correct. I found when using rice flour, though, it helps to include 1/4 to 1/2 cup starch (corn starch, tapioca starch, or arrowroot powder). In a recipe calling for 4 cups flour, I’d use 3 1/2 cups rice flour, 1/2 cup starch (I prefer tapioca), and 1 tsp xanthan gum. Rice flour on its own makes very crumbly baked goods (but nice and crispy waffles and breading on fried foods).

      • Karen says:

        Hi, somewhat similar to Christina, i am using 3 1/2 cups flour (1 cup teff, 1.5 cup sorghum, 1 cup white rice flour) and 1/2 cup tapioca starch. The recipe also calls for 1/3 cup ground chia seeds plus 1/3 cup whole psyllium husks. i understand that I would use about 1 tsp xanthan gum but I still use the chia, correct??? and thank you so much for answering our questions!!!!!

      • With the chia seeds and psyllium husks in the recipe you shouldn’t need xanthum gum at all, especially if you let the dough rest or soak the seeds in the liquid required in the recipe to release their gel-like properties.

  66. Sally says:

    I’m making gummy bear candy can I use guar gum in place of gelatin? And say I use 1/2 cup juice how much guar should be used

  67. Tori Lauren says:

    Hi!

    I have a lot of weird allergies, and I can’t have chia or flax seeds, nor can I have psyllium husk powder, but I found a recipe using it. Could I substitute this gelatin I have instead?

  68. Elaine Oxford says:

    I am making Chicken Thai Bowl in a slow cooker and need a substitute for Xanthan any suggestions please,
    Thank You, Elaine.

  69. Peter says:

    I have a recipe that calls for “ground psyllium husk powder” and another that calls for “ground psyllium seed husks”. I have psyllium husks on hand, but not powder. Can I use them as-is? Should I alter the amount? Or should I try to powder them?

  70. Peter says:

    I have seen recipes that call for “ground psyllium seed husks” or “psyllium husk powder”. When using psyllium husks, should the quantity be adjusted? Or is there an easy way to powder or grind the husks?

  71. Karleen says:

    Hi . I follow a keto/low carb high fat diet. I’ve found a recipe for a paleo bread that I’d like to try. However, it has 1/2 cup of arrowroot flour in it which I believe is very high in carbs. What could I use as a substitute for the arrowroot flour? I assume that cornstarch and potato starch would be just as high in carbs….. Could it be replaced with xanthum gum and if so, how much?

  72. Marie says:

    Ive used chia seeds to substitute xanthan gum in this recipe and its still crumbly.. should I increase the chia? Add corn starch? Or physillium seed husks? I’m open to adding any of those. what are your thoughts and how much? Thanks a bunch!!
    Gluten-free Honey Oat Bread

    3 1/3 cups oat flour (or 4 cups of gluten-free oats plus more for the top)
    2 scant tablespoons yeast
    1 1/2 cups warm water
    1/4 cup olive oil
    1/4 cup + 2 tablespoons honey
    1/2 cup corn starch (or tapioca flour)
    1/2 cup rice flour (white or sweet white rice flour. Brown rice would probably work too but I haven’t tried that yet)
    2 teaspoons xanthan gum
    1 teaspoon salt
    1/4 teaspoon cinnamon
    4 eggs

  73. cindy says:

    What can I reply psyllium powder with don’t have chia or flax seeds

  74. Christina Baber says:

    When using chia or flax seeds do you mix with liquid before adding to the bread and or cake mix?

    Thank you this chart is great help

  75. Christina Baber says:

    Have you used green banana flour instead of a mix of different flours? If not vould I send you couple of pounds to try?

  76. Just love your site and this very useful list. Thank you.

  77. paula says:

    Is xantham gum a susbstitute for arrow root starch, ordo they do different things?

    • They have different properties. Xanthum gum gives dough more of an elastic feel that you can’t get with arrowroot powder. You can get similar results to xanthum gum with agar agar powder, guar gum, gelatin, psyllium husk powder, flaxseed meal, & chia seed meal.

  78. MARIANGELES RIVERA says:

    Greetings and Thank you for this conversion chart list. Now, I would like to know if I can substitute agar agar (it’s quite expensive) for arrowroot and what ratio would it be. Or if there’s a better substitute vegan for it.
    Thanks for your help.

    • Arrowroot doesn’t have similar qualities to agar agar. Gelatin or xanthum gum would be the best substitutions. Xanthum gum has a 1/2:1 ratio with agar agar powder. Gelatin has a 1:1 ratio with agar agar powder.

  79. Adam says:

    Hi,

    Thanks for your substitution charts – they are very useful. There is a recipe I’d like to make but unfortunately it calls for 60 grams of vital wheat gluten. Obviously I’d like to use a gluten free alternative but I’d also like it to be high in protein.

    Since vital wheat gluten is wheat flour with the starch removed, would I be able to use protein powder (like a pea/rice protein blend) with psyllium, chia seed or agar agar powder added? If so, what would be the ratio of protein powder to psyllium/agar/chia?

    If you don’t think the protein powder and psyllium/chia/agar blend would work, would a whole grain flour (millet, teff, quinoa, sorghum) mixed with psyllium, chia or agar agar work as a substitute for pure gluten?

    Thanks for your time.

    Adam

    • Vital wheat gluten adds a very elastic quality to dough. You can attempt to use agar agar powder and protein powder as a substitute since I don’t think chia seed meal, flax seed meal, or psyllium husk powder has the right qualities, though zanthum gum might. For every cup of protein powder used add 1/2 tsp agar agar powder. I haven’t tried this so I’m not sure what the results will be. Good luck!

  80. Kerry Westenbarger says:

    How much chis seeds would I use instead of half a package of instant pectin when making refrigerator jam?

  81. Misty says:

    Thank you for this amazing chart! So many questions answered…bit I still have one. Can you tell me how I might use oat fiber in a GF flour mix for breads, cakes etc? I’m trying to stay low carb. The ratio to other flours like coconut or almond? Thanks again!!

    • You can replace up to a quarter of total flour in a recipe with oat fiber. I’ve never used it so I’m not sure how much it’ll change the texture of the recipe. It might make gluten free breads more crumbly. Happy baking!

  82. K knauer says:

    Hi! I’m making a vegan cherry mousse. It calls for 3/4 tsp agar powder. I only have xanthan gum. Will it work? What is the ratio? Thank you!

  83. Marcia Durling says:

    Can arrowroot powder be substituted with xanthan gum and if do what are the equivalent measurements?

    • Arrowroot powder can’t be used in place of xanthum gum because they have very different chemical properties. Flaxseed, chia seed, and psyllium husk powder/meal have properties that are more similar to gums than starches like arrowroot or tapioca.

  84. MomofThree says:

    Hello. Thank you so much for these conversions. They are so helpful. I have tapioca flour but my recipe calls for 1 tablespoon of arrowroot powder. It doesn’t look like a one-to-one conversion on your chart. Can you help?

    • Arrowroot powder and tapioca starch can be interchangeable depending on the application. When used as a thickening agent arrowroot is slightly more powerful than tapioca starch, hence the ratio is 2 1/2 tsp arrowroot powder = 1 Tbs tapioca starch. Arrowroot powder is not an appropriate thickener for dairy containing sauces and can only tolerate short periods of heat before breaking down. Tapioca starch isn’t appropriate for acid containing sauces, but is more stable with heat.

      In gluten free baked goods where starches are used to help reduce crumbling, arrowroot and tapioca can be interchanged at a 1:1 ratio.

  85. Rebecca R Alvarez says:

    Came across a recipe that calls for flour and cornstarch. I’d rather not use cornstarch, so can I use 1/4 tsp of xanthan gum per cup flour?

    • Starches aren’t used as substitutes for gluten in recipes. They improve texture to make the end product more like wheat flour baked goods. More appropriate substitutions for corn starch are tapioca starch or arrowroot powder. If you’re trying to reduce the carbohydrates in the recipe, simply increase the amount of your base flour to equal the amount of corn starch removed from the recipe.

  86. Mary Smith says:

    I believe I read through the majority of questions and comments and did not find the answer to my question. I have a recipe where it uses a half a cup of arrowroot powder if I wanted to make it lower carb I was told I could use xanthan gum but I can’t find what ratio to use it. Could you please tell me what the proper ratio is in a heated sauce

    • For use as a thickener, use 1/4 tsp xanthan gum per 1 cup of liquid. It tends to clump when added to liquids so it’s best to sprinkle the xanthan gum over the liquid while whisking constantly. It’ll continue to thicken as it cooks into the sauce.

  87. Amanda says:

    I am trying to make a vegetarian mirror glaze for a cake, but can not find agar. Can I substitute for Pectin? The recipe calls for 4 tsp of agar powder.

    • Pectin should work, though high methoxyl amidated pectin requires acid, like citric acid in fruit, to set and low methoxyl amidated pectin requires calcium so make sure you get the right type to go along with the ingredients in the recipe. The ratio of agar agar powder to pectin is 1:2. For your recipe you’ll need 8 tsp of pectin.

  88. SaraCS says:

    Hi, I am trying to make sugar-free jam (blackberries or strawberries). I do not want to use honey, juices or other kinds of sugar, so I’m wondering if the pectine alone would do a good job for both the jellying process and to preserve the jam.

    Also, could xanthan powder be used instead of pectine? Or chia seeds? If so, what the convertion ration?

    Any suggestions would be appreciated, thank you! 🙂

    • Instant pectin works well for no sugar added jams and jellies. It doesn’t act as a preservative like sugar or sugar alcohols so unsweetened jam or jelly of any kind should be kept in the freezer unless enough acid (lemon juice or citric acid) is added to prevent spoilage.

      Chia seed jam can be made with one pound fruit and 2 Tbs chia seeds. You may need more chia seeds if the berries are more liquidly. Most chia seed jams are not cooked & should be made in small batches or frozen.

      Xanthan gum can be used instead of pectin with 1 pound fruit to 1/2 tsp xanthan gum. It also would be a freezer jam.

      • SaraCS says:

        Thank you so much!
        I’ll definitely give these options a try… experiments in the kitchen, here we come! 🙂

      • SaraCS says:

        Sorry, just a quick question if you can.

        Any idea of how much lemon juice needs adding to have a preservative effect? Would you say 1/2 cup lemon juice per kg of fruit?

        Thanks again!

    • How much lemon juice is required depends on the pH/acidity of your berries. Blackberries would require less, about 1 Tbs per kg, and strawberries would require more, 2-3 Tbs per kg. The ideal pH for preserves is between 2.6-3.2.

  89. Cassie says:

    Hi,
    I am looking to cook some Asian savory dishes and was wondering if it’s possible to swap the cornstarch or rice flour for psyllium husk powder?
    Thanks 🙂

    • Substituting psyllium husk powder for corn starch or rice flour depends greatly on application. Psyllium husk powder can be used to thicken sauces, but I wouldn’t recommend it in coatings or batters. Psyllium husk powder is similar to xanthan gum as far as thickening power and is used interchangeably in Europe. 1/4 to 1/2 tsp per cup of liquid is the best ratio to use as a thickener. Start with 1/4 tsp and increase if necessary after whisking it well into your sauce.

      Coconut flour or almond flour can be used in coatings or batters. I’ve also used chickpea flour, though it contains a little more carbohydrates.

  90. Betty Lutz says:

    Thank you.😊

  91. Chastity says:

    What can I substitute for tapioca starch in a keto past recipe?

    • I’d have to know more about the recipe in order to make a recommendation. Coconut flour, almond flour, and/or flaxseed meal are all options but which one works best is based on the function tapioca starch serves in the recipe.

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